Common Mynah (Acridotheres tristis)
The common myna or Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis), sometimes spelled mynah, is a bird in the family Sturnidae, native to Asia. An omnivorous open woodland bird with a strong territorial instinct, the common myna has adapted extremely well to urban environments.
The range of the common myna is increasing at such a rapid rate that in 2000 the IUCN Species Survival Commission declared it one of the world's most invasive species and one of only three birds listed among "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Species" that pose a threat to biodiversity, agriculture and human interests. In particular, the species poses a serious threat to the ecosystems of Australia, where it was named "The Most Important Pest/Problem" in 2008.
The common myna is native to Asia, with its initial home range spanning Iran, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore, peninsular Thailand, Indochina, Japan (both mainland Japan and the Ryukyu Islands) and China.
The common myna has been introduced to many other parts of the world such as Canada, Australia, Israel, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Fiji, the United States (South Florida only), South Africa, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan, the Cayman Islands, islands in the Indian Ocean (the Seychelles, Mauritius, Réunion, Madagascar, the Maldives, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep archipelago) and also in islands of the Atlantic (such as Ascension and Saint Helena, Pacific Ocean and Cyprus February 2022. The range of the common myna is increasing to the extent that in 2000 the IUCN Species Survival Commission declared it among 100 of the world's worst invasive species. Visiting a home garden in Colombo, Sri Lanka
It is typically found in open woodland, cultivation and around habitation. Although it is an adaptable species, its population is abnormal and very much considered a pest in Singapore (where it is locally called as gembala kerbau, literally 'buffalo shepherd') due to competition with the related introduced Javan myna.
The common myna thrives in urban and suburban environments; in Canberra, for instance, 110 common mynas were released between 1968 and 1971. By 1991, common myna population density in Canberra averaged 15 birds per square kilometer. Only three years later, a second study found an average population density of 75 birds per square kilometer in the same area.